Understanding ADHD

Table of Contents


In this module, we will delve into the various aspects of ADHD, including its definition, causes, and manifestations. We will explore the wide range of  experiences that individuals may encounter, some classed as strengths and some as limitations. Understanding the diverse nature of ADHD is essential, as it allows us to recognize its potential effects on mental health and empathize with those who have experienced it.

Main Symptoms and Types of ADHD

As mentioned in the introduction, ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the ability to pay attention, control impulsive behavior, and regulate emotions.


The following list are some of the ways inattention shows itself in various parts of life:

  • Forgetting things or misplacing stuff.
  • Having a short attention span and getting easily distracted.
  • Making mistakes because it’s hard to focus, like in schoolwork.
  • Finding it tough to organize tasks.
  • Frequently changing tasks.
  • Having trouble following or carrying out instructions.
  • Finding it hard to stick with boring or time-consuming tasks.
Hyperactivity & Impulsiveness

The following list are some of the ways hyperactivity and impulsiveness shows itself in various parts of life:

  • Constantly fidgeting and being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings.
  • Exhibiting excessive physical movement.
  • Being unable to concentrate on tasks and talking excessively.
  • Acting without thinking and interrupting conversations.
  • Demonstrating little or no sense of danger.
  • Being unable to wait their turn.

ADHD is typically classified into three main types: 

Predominantly Inattentive Presentation:

Individuals with this type often struggle with sustained attention and may appear forgetful. Alex, our student, finds it difficult to maintain focus during lectures. Despite his genuine interest in the subject, his mind tends to wander, making it challenging to follow the teacher’s explanations. When it comes to homework, Alex’s organizational skills are put to the test, often resulting in incomplete tasks and overlooked details. It’s not a lack of interest or effort, but a genuine difficulty in sustaining attention that characterizes this type.

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation:

This type is characterized by excessive restlessness and impulsive behavior. Sarah, our friend in the meeting, embodies these traits. Her constant foot tapping, doodling, and impulsive interjections are not intentional disruptions but manifestations of her hyperactive and impulsive tendencies. Waiting for her turn to speak or remaining seated for extended periods proves challenging. It’s essential to recognize that this behavior arises from an inherent difficulty in controlling impulses and an excess of energy rather than intentional disruption.

Combined Presentation:

The combined type encompasses a mix of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Chris, our multitasking professional, faces challenges on multiple fronts. During lengthy meetings, focus wavers, and restlessness sets in, reflecting the inattentive aspect. Simultaneously, Chris exhibits impulsive urges to contribute ideas, showcasing the hyperactive-impulsive dimension. Juggling various projects exposes organizational difficulties, yet Chris possesses remarkable adaptability and creativity. The combined presentation underscores the complexity of ADHD, where individuals navigate a spectrum of symptoms in their daily lives.

It’s crucial to recognize that individuals with ADHD may not experience all of these symptoms, and the severity can vary. Some may predominantly exhibit inattention, while others may struggle more with hyperactivity or impulsivity. This diversity underscores the uniqueness of each person’s experience with ADHD. With the right support and understanding, individuals with ADHD can navigate their daily lives effectively and contribute valuable perspectives to various settings.

Additional Symptoms

ADHD manifests through a range of symptoms that can impact various aspects of an individual’s life. We already spoke about the symptoms relating to hyperactivity and inattention, however it is important to also highlight some other frequently experienced symptoms that haven’t been included yet in the mainstream diagnosis manuals. As with the other symptoms of ADHD, these symptoms might not appear for everyone or for everyone in the same way.

Rejection Sensitive Disphoria

Noted for intense emotional reactions to perceived criticism, rejection, or failure, even when objectively absent. Sarah, after receiving constructive feedback, may experience an overwhelming sense of failure and rejection, despite the feedback being constructive.

Decision Paralysis

Characterized by a hesitation in making choices, feeling overwhelmed by decision-making, and occasional procrastination when faced with multiple options. In a restaurant, Chris might find it challenging to decide what to order, feeling overwhelmed by the array of choices.

Sensory Sensitivities

Involves heightened sensitivity to sensory stimuli like sound, light, or touch, potentially leading to discomfort or distraction. Alex, for instance, may struggle to concentrate in crowded and noisy environments due to heightened sensitivity to surrounding stimuli.



Many individuals with ADHD demonstrate high levels of creativity. Their ability to think outside the box, connect ideas in unconventional ways, and generate novel solutions can be a tremendous asset.

Energy and Enthusiasm

Individuals with ADHD often bring an abundance of energy, spontaneity and enthusiasm to new tasks and activities. Their passion and zest for life can be contagious and inspire those around them.

Good in Crisis Situations

Managing daily challenges associated with ADHD fosters resilience. Individuals with ADHD often develop a capacity to combine their quick thinking, high energy and hyperfocus to become very adaptable in crisis situations.

Gender Differences

Recent research indicates that ADHD affects males and females differently. While males are more likely to be diagnosed with the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, females are more likely to exhibit symptoms of the inattentive type. Furthermore, young girls with ADHD may be better at masking their symptoms and are often not diagnosed until later in life. The lack of recognition of ADHD in females may result in psychological and social problems as they struggle with the effects of their untreated ADHD.

There are several reasons for this:

  1. Societal Expectations: Social expectations and stereotypes may contribute to the differences in symptom presentation. The traditional image of ADHD aligning with hyperactivity may lead to under-recognition of the condition in girls, especially if their symptoms do not conform to this stereotype.

  2. Coping Mechanisms: Girls may develop coping mechanisms that mask their symptoms, such as excessive effort to appear organized or attentive. This can make it challenging for others to recognize the underlying ADHD, as the coping mechanisms may initially seem effective.

  3. Diagnostic Bias: Diagnostic biases can also play a role. The criteria for diagnosing ADHD have historically been based on studies primarily involving boys, potentially leading to a gender bias in the understanding and identification of the disorder.

Recognizing these gender differences is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate support. Increased awareness of diverse symptom presentations can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of ADHD and ensure that individuals of all genders receive the support they need to thrive.

Myth Busting

By dispelling the following myths, we can start creating a more accurate understanding of ADHD, paving the way for empathy, support, and inclusivity in our communities:

Reality: While hyperactivity is one aspect, ADHD also includes inattention and impulsivity. Not everyone with ADHD is hyperactive; some individuals may primarily exhibit difficulties in focusing or impulsivity.

Reality: ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a biological basis. It has nothing to do with laziness or intelligence. Many individuals with ADHD are highly intelligent and creative but may face challenges in certain areas.

Reality: Research supports the existence of ADHD as a valid and recognized medical condition. The increased awareness, research into gender differences and parents becoming aware of their difficulties due to their child being diagnosed are just some of the reasons why we are seeing an increase in ADHD being diagnosed.

Reality: While medication can be an effective part of treatment, it is not the sole solution. Behavioral interventions, therapy, and lifestyle adjustments are also crucial. Treatment plans are individualized based on the unique needs and preferences of each person.

Reality: Many individuals with ADHD excel in academic and professional settings. With the right support, accommodations, and understanding, people with ADHD can harness their strengths and contribute meaningfully to various fields.

Reality: ADHD is not an excuse for behavior but an explanation for certain challenges. Individuals with ADHD may struggle with impulse control, but with the right strategies and support, they can learn effective ways to manage their behavior.

Discover practical tips and strategies to help manage your ADHD in the next part of the module

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